Development of explosive works technique reducing harmful effects on environment Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering Vol. 328, № 8
Relevance of research is caused by the need of expansion of application field of modern environmentally friendly technology of explosive works based on optimization of the drilling-and-blasting works parameters and development of new schemes of detonation and designs of charges. The aim of the research is to justify the technical capability of increasing the efficiency of drilling-and-blasting works on pits, due to optimization of parameters in various mining-and-geological conditions, as well as the development of new designs of the borehole charges reducing harmful effects on environment. Research methods: the analysis of the best practices in development of similar fields on materials of publications, physical modeling of parameters of explosive works and forecasting the ways of development of field exploration techniques. When carrying out the experiments the authors have used the complex technique of researches including the system and statistical analyses, experimental explosions, technological generalizations. Results of the research. The authors have developed the ecological pure technology of explosive works, taking into account modern methods and optimum parameters of detonation, assessing the role of strength properties and structural features of the massif, to obtain high-quality crushing of the massif of rocks. The paper introduces the results of the research in natural and laboratory conditions. It is shown that it is necessary to consider the massif fracture category and rock hardness coefficient for effective production of drilling-and-blasting works. The research proves the natural dependence of crushing quality on a grid of drilling-and-blasting wells which open pit should be arranged in the block in the way that tension concentration from explosion of simultaneously blown up groups of charges fell on near-axial large-block zones. The authors recommend the optimal detonation parameters. Application of the universal channel cartridge is the main factor of increasing the steady mode of detonation. Its distinctive feature consists in combination of the detonating explosive charge with a longitudinal hollow cavity. The drilling-and-blasting works rational parameters should be calculated and selected taking into account complex influence of natural and technogenic factors, using modern programs, techniques and computer. Thus, the major directions in the field of decrease in technogenic impact of iron ore production and processing are: development of a general concept of environmental protection from technological pollution, improvement and implementation of rational parameters of drilling-and-blasting works. Conclusions. Implementation of the latest modern technologies of production and processing of iron ores, improvement and implementation of rational parameters of drilling-and-blasting works, provide economic effect, due to decrease in technogenic load of mining enterprises on the environment and improvement of geoecological condition of mining regions.
technology, development, deposit, rock mass crushing, breakage, open pit, borehole charges, conversion additives, drilling and blasting operations, protection of the environment, geoecology